Glossary and FAQ’s

Having trouble connecting to the BioRadio using Bluetooth?  c 

BioRadio Bluetooth Troubleshooting Guide (PDF)

Electrophysiology and Data Acquisition

1. How do I determine if the signal I want to record should be programmed as a differential or singled ended channel?

Typically, ECG and EMG are differential, whilst EEG and often EOG are single-ended.

2. How do I implement Ground and Reference in my setup?

Any bony prominence can serve as a Ground or Reference. The center of the forehead, mastoid (bone behind each ear), hip bone, and elbow are all common.

3. Do I need a Ground or Reference when only using a sensor with the BioRadio?

No, Ground is only needed when recording surface potentials.

4. Are particular electrodes recommended for certain signals?

For most surface potentials, cloth Ag-AgCl electrodes are sufficient. EEG is recorded from scalp, which require gold cup electrodes and EEG conductive paste of which allow for EEG measurements in the presence of hair. For applications involving exercise, more robust ECG electrodes are available; they are more resistant to sweat and movement. For GSR, dry electrodes and EEG conductive paste is recommended.

5. How do I know if an acquired bio potential signal data is acceptable?

Most bio potential signal data have core characteristics that you can use to judge your recorded signal data. For example, the QRS complex of a normal ECG signal lasts between 60 and 120 milliseconds.

6. Where can I learn more about common electrophysiological signals?

Review the Basic Physiology category of labs in the Lab Course software.

7. How do I determine where to put ground and reference electrodes?

Bones do not produce a voltage. Any bony prominence can serve as a ground or reference. The center of the forehead, mastoid (bone behind each ear), hip bone, and elbow are all common.


BioRadio Setup

1. What are the system requirements for the BioRadio and BioCapture and Lab Course software?

Intel 1.86GHz CPU (or equivalent) with 1 GB RAM (2GB for 64 bit systems). One available USB 2.0 port, > 1 GB hard disk space, Microsoft compatible keyboard and mouse, Microsoft NET Framework 4.5.1, Bluetooth® 4.0 radio or adapter and Adobe Acrobat Reader.

2. Can the BioRadio run on a Mac or Linux operating systems?

The BioRadio is not designed to run on any OS other that Windows 7 or later. Programs, such as BootCamp or VMWare, are unsupported.

3. Are there any prerequisites or considerations for using the BioRadio and BioCapture and/or Lab Course software?

No specific prerequisites are needed; however, familiarity with electrophysiology, bioinstrumentation and/or health sciences are beneficial.

4. Are there any prerequisites or considerations for analyzing saved data?

No specific prerequisites are needed; however, proficiency in digital signal processing and/or electrophysiology is advantageous. Note: Recordings from the BioRadio have no filtering applied.

5. Is there training available on the BioRadio?

Yes, all BioRadio users can view our video library for setup of the BioRadio. Users of newly purchased BioRadio systems can, in addition, schedule 1-on-1 training with our technical staff.

6. How long does the BioRadio need to charge before use, and how long does the battery last.

The BioRadio is fully charged in approx. 3-4 hours, and its battery lasts approx. 8 hours.

7. Can the BioRadio run on Windows based tablets?

Successful preliminary testing has been completed with the BioRadio and Window 8 tablets. Currently, only limited support is available for the BioRadio and Windows 8 tablets. The BioRadio does not support tablets running Windows RT.

8. What are the software options for the BioRadio and saved BioRadio signal data?

For wireless acquisition, the BioRadio integrates with BioCapture and Lab Course software; as well as DataWave software and any 32/64-bit applications built with the BioRadio SDK. For review and analysis of BioCapture recordings (.bcrx), BioCapture and third party programs, DataWave and VivoSense can be used. Recordings data can also be saved or exported to an ACSII file (.csv) for review, and analysis in programs such as LabVIEW, MATLAB and Excel.

9. Can multiple BioRadio systems work at the same time? On the same PC?

Yes, many BioRadio systems will work simultaneously in the same area, on separate PCs with potentially varying software.

To use multiple BioRadio systems on the same PC with BioCapture, you will need to have an instance of BioCapture open for each BioRadio. You will need only one internal or external Bluetooth adapter to communicate with multiple BioRadio systems. Note: For bandwidth concerns, it is recommended to limit the number of BioRadio systems communicating to one PC to a maximum of three.

10. Can the BioRadio and BioCapture software synch with other devices and other software?

Yes, with the specifications of the system in mind to synch with the BioRadio, Great Lakes NeuroTechnologies engineers can design hardware and/or software triggers to synch your system(s) with the BioRadio, across one or multiple PCs. The BioRadio has been successfully synched with Advanced Mechanical Technology’s AccuSway Plus software and force platforms, as well as applications developed with MATLAB and LabVIEW. Please contact our sales staff for more information and pricing.


BioRadio Hardware

1. What is the warranty on the BioRadio?

One year warranty on parts and labor. Extended warranty plans are available. Contact our sales staff for more information and pricing.

2. Where can I find BioRadio hardware specifications?


3. How many input channels can the BioRadio record?

4 differential or 8 single ended. The BioRadio cannot be programmed to combine single ended and differential input channels.

4. What electrode cables/leads and electrodes are compatible with the BioRadio?

The BioRadio uses medical grade touch-proof male electrode cables and “button snap” Ag-AgCl electrodes and gold cup electrodes for recordings involving EEG. The BioRadio is compatible with EEG caps; however, Great Lakes NeuroTechnologies does not offer a specific cap at this time.

5. What do I do if the BioRadio becomes unresponsive?

If the BioRadio is on yet does not respond to any normal hardware or software operation, simply perform a hard reset by holding down the power and event marker button until the BioRadio shuts off. Then, turn the BioRadio back on to resume normal function.

6. Why does it seem that the Bluetooth adapter device drivers need to be installed every time I plug it into my PC?

Device drivers are made available only for the USB port the Bluetooth adapter is plugged into. If the Bluetooth adapter is plugged into another port, that port will need the same drivers.


BioCapture Software

1. Can BioCapture and Lab Course software be used at the same time?

No, the BioRadio can only communicate to and from one program at a time.

2. How do I record heart rate?

A pulse oximeter, pulse oximeter interface cable and a sensor pod is needed to record heart rate with the BioRadio and BioCapture software. Using the BioRadio and DataWave software to acquire ECG will also produce heart rate indicator.

3. What kind of analysis can be achieved with BioCapture?

A frequency domain is available to observe a signal’s power spectrum.

4. Do I need BioCapture software to use the BioRadio?

The BioRadio can acquire and save data to its memory; hence, BioCapture is not needed during acquisition but is required to download and convert recordings saved to memory.

5. How do I setup event markers?

Before starting acquisition or a recording, go to Edit → Event marker from the top menu to establish event marker keyboard shortcuts.

6. Can saved data be exported and accessed by other programs?

Yes, a saved recording can be exported to an ASCII comma separated values file (.csv). .csv is a common file format that is widely supported by consumer, business, and scientific applications.

7. How are event markers represented in exported data?

In an exported ASCII recording, for every row of data saved, an event marker is denoted by a 1. All other rows where an event did not occur are denoted by a zero (0).

8. What are the sampling rate, resolution and input range when they are not programmable?

For inputs that cannot be configured, the sampling rate is 250 Hz., the resolution is 16-bit, and the input range is ± 2 V.


Lab Course Software

1. How many labs are there?

Currently, there are 25 labs; plus, the Post Processing Toolbox.

2. Are the PDF lab chapters editable?

No, and it is strongly recommended that the labs are completed as written and in their entirety.

3. How long do labs take to complete?

Each lab takes 2-3 hours to complete. This does not include time for a lab’s set of discussion questions.

4. How do I program the BioRadio?

The Lab Course software will automatically program the BioRadio based on the lab. Most of the labs have predefined programming instructions.

5. How is data saved, and can it be accessed by other programs?

The saved data consists of two file types—.data and .header, which are both ASCII plain-text files. This means they can be accessed by the Post Processing Toolbox and other programs, such as LabVIEW, MATLAB and Excel. The .data file contains the actual signal data, whereas the .header file provides channel names and the sampling rate, which is needed to derive values of time (in sec.) necessary for plotting.



Biopotentials and Measured Units:

A bio potential is voltage, measured in volts (V), which the BioRadio collects directly from thebody’s surface. Common sources of bio potentials are the heart, skeletal muscle and the brain. Bio signals are also bio potentials yet usually represent an expression of activity, and are measured in units other than voltage. For example, heart rate (bpm) and blood pressures (mmHg) express general heart activity. Surface potentials and bio potentials are considered the same.

BCRX and BCSX Files:

A BCRX file is a BioCapture recording and is the data saved from BioRadio and BioCapture software. A BCSX file is a BioCapture session and are the presets—hardware programming, digital filtering, gain and offset, display settings etc.—that can be used as a template to quickly configure the BioRadio prior to acquisition.

BioCapture and Lab Course:

BioCapture software is for research applications, while the Lab Course software is strictly for education. We do not recommend using the Lab Course for research purposes. The Lab Course software has a limited scope and its capabilities are heavily dictated by the embedded lab chapters.

Dropped Packet:

A dropped packet is when the Bluetooth adapter does not receive or cannot accept data from the BioRadio. There are only a few reasons for dropped packets. Common causes include the BioRadio going out of range and not having enough battery or bandwidth to transmit correctly. Within a recording, a dropped packet is denoted by a value of 9999999.


The study of cells, tissues and organs of the body, in terms of current, resistance and, most usually, voltage.


Filtering is a part of signal processing where raw digital signal data is processed to produce more certain signal data. By default, BioCapture software provides tools for digital filtering to remove undesirable slow moving components of bio potentials. Common filters include a low pass and high pass filters.   A low pass filter, for example, removes low frequency or slow components of a bio potential. Filtering is necessary for accurate interpretation of signal data.

Ground and Reference Electrodes:

Ground and Reference are reserved for areas of the body where no current passes; hence, no voltage is produced. As stated above, a single reference electrode is required for all single ended channels. A single ground electrode is required for any voltage measured directly from the body’s surface—single ended or differential. Ground represents absolute zero or the vertical axis for all surface potentials.

Inputs versus Channels:

There are two inputs—one red and one black—for each input channel. Each red input is positive and is always required. Each black input is negative and is only required for differential channels. For single ended channels, the single white REF input on the BioRadio is used in place of each black input.

Jumper Cables:

Jumper cables are for duplicating the same input signal across multiple input channels. As the name implies, a jumper cable bridges two separate inputs, by providing the same signal to both. Jumper cables are convenient for creating duplicate input channels. Jumper cables are optional accessories; contact our sales staff for more information and pricing.

Post Processing Toolbox:

The Post Processing Toolbox (PPT) is an essential analysis module designed exclusively for saved Lab Course data files, as instructed in the Lab Course lab chapter Procedure and Data Collection sections. The PPT is not designed to access or analyze arbitrary ASCII files or Lab Course data files created outside a lab chapter procedure. To use, select the applicable lab and .data file from the drop down menus, in the upper right hand corner of the PPT module.

Resolution and Input Range:

Resolution is how accurately a bio signal is digitally recorded. Usually, higher resolution is better, yet the higher the resolution the more bandwidth is needed to manage signal data.

Sample Rate:

Sampling rate, in samples per second or hertz (Hz), is how fast a bio signal can be digitally recorded. Usually, higher sampling rate is better, yet the higher the sampling rate the more bandwidth is needed to manage signal data.

Single Ended versus Differential Channel Types:

Single Ended and Differential are the two means of measuring voltage. Single Ended uses one electrode on an area of the body’s surface and another electrode on a reference site. The reference electrode records zero voltage. Hence, single ended measures voltage from the body’s surface relative to zero. Differential is similar; the difference is having two electrodes, on an area of the body’s surface—the voltages are subtracted from each other. Typically, ECG and EMG are differential, whilst EEG and often EOG are single-ended.


Legacy Software Development Kits (SDKs)

To help accommodate software development of older BioRadio and KinetiSense systems, below is a list of previous SDKs with corresponding system hardware models and system software versions.

Legacy SDKs are available “as is”, without warranty or guarantees of any kind, either expressed or implied.

ProductSDKVersionFile NameHardware RequirementsSoftware Requirements [469KB]150 modelBioCapture 3.0 [1.76MB]150, 110, and Jr. modelBioCapture 3.0 and earlier
Win321.5.5.24BioRadio150DLL_20071127_135403.exe [525KB]150 modelBioCapture 3.0
LabVIEW1.0KinetiSense_SDK_LabView.exe [510KB]Single sensor modelKinetiSense 3.0 and earlier
MATLABn/aKinetiSense_SDK_MATLAB_20080110_121154.exe [332KB]Single sensor modelKinetiSense 3.0 and earlier